10.a Raw materials and consumables - €41,612 million

Millions of euro     
 2013 2012 restated Change 
Electricity  28,297  30,080  (1,783)  -5.9% 
Fuel and gas  11,738  13,379  (1,641)  -12.3% 
Materials  1,577  3,123  (1,546)  -49.5% 
Total  41,612  46,582  (4,970)  -10.7% 
- of which capitalized costs for materials  (737)  (989)  252  -25.5% 

Purchases of “electricity” comprise those from the Single Buyer in the amount of €5,135 million (€5,992 million in 2012) and purchases from the Energy Markets Operator in the amount of €4,451 million (€3,290 million in 2012).

The decline in the item is mainly due to the reduction in costs for electricity purchases through bilateral contracts and on national and international markets, essentially as a result of the decline in demand. These factors were partially offset by an increase in purchases on electricity exchanges.

Purchases of “fuel and gas” include €6,142 million in natural gas purchases (€6,630 million in 2012) and €5,596 million in purchases of other fuels (€6,642 million in 2012).

Purchases of “materials” fell mainly as a result of a decline in sourcing of CO2 emission allowances and other environmental certificates, which were mainly used for resale.