10.c Personnel - €4,596 million

Millions of euro     
 2013 2012 restated Change 
Wages and salaries  3,406  3,511  (105)  -3.0% 
Social security contributions  917  896  21  2.3% 
Post-employment benefits  117  119  (2)  -1.7% 
Other costs  156  1,263  (1,107)  -87.6% 
Total  4,596  5,789  (1,193)  -20.6% 
- of which capitalized  (714)  (759)  45  -5.9% 

Personnel costs amounted to €4,596 million in 2013, a decrease of €1,193 million.

The workforce contracted by 2,308, due to the effect of the balance between hirings and terminations (a decrease of 2,336 employees), only partially offset by the increase related to the change in the scope of consolidation largely associated with the acquisition of PowerCrop (28 employees).

At December 31, 2013 the number of employees associated with assets held for sale (the Belgian company Marcinelle Energie) was 37.

The decline in “other costs” for personnel reflects the net effect of the termination of the transition-to-retirement plan established for certain employees in Italy at the end of 2012, which had prompted the recognition of a charge totaling €970 million. In 2013, the termination of that plan had a positive impact on profit or loss of €1,028 million (equal to the reversal of the initial provision of €970 million plus current service costs and interest costs accrued in the period of €58 million), which fully offset the charges connected with the application of the union agreements to implement, for a number of companies in Italy, the mechanism provided for under Article 4, paragraphs 1-7-ter, of Law 92/2012 (the Fornero Act), which amounted to €898 million.

For more information on employee benefit plans, please see note 30 below.

The table below shows the average number of employees by category compared with the previous year, and the actual number of employees at December 31, 2013.

 Average number (1) Headcount (1) 
 2013 2012 Change at Dec. 31, 2013 (2) 
Senior managers  1,374  1,375  (1)  1,374 
Middle managers  14,552  14,232  320  14,630 
Office staff  39,833  40,610  (777)  38,818 
Workers  17,224  18,393  (1,169)  16,572 
Total  72,983  74,610  (1,627)  71,394 

(1) For companies consolidated on a proportionate basis, the headcount corresponds to Enel percentage share of the total.
(2) Of which 37 in units classified as “held for sale”.