10.e Other operating expenses - €2,837 million

Millions of euro     
 2013 2012 restated Change 
Provisions for risks and charges  85  468  (383)  -81.8% 
System charges - emissions allowances  335  47  288  -
Charges for white certificates  295  366  (71)  -19.4% 
Charges for green certificates  270  95  175  -
Taxes and duties  1,468  1,225  243  19.8% 
Other  384  573  (189)  -33.0% 
Total  2,837  2,774  63  2.3% 

Other operating expenses totaled €2,837 million, up €63 million, mainly due to an increase of €175 million in costs for the purchase of green certificates and increased charges for compliance with environmental restrictions in the amount of €288 million. An additional factor was the increase of €243 million in taxes and duties for the period, largely attributable to the tax on emissions introduced in Spain with Law 15/2012, the effect of which was only partially offset by the reduction in taxes on electricity companies established by Brazilian regulators with Medida Provisória 579/2012 and the subsequent Decree 7891/2013. These increases were also partially offset by a reduction in provisions for risks and charges for the year and the downward revision of estimates for provisions recognized in prior years in the amount of €383 million.